Teacher’s To-do List for Instructional Conversation
  1. Arrange the classroom to accommodate conversation between the teacher and a small group of students on a regular and frequent schedule.
  2. Have clear academic goal that guides conversation with students.
  3. Ensure that students talk occurs at higher rates than teacher talk.
  4. Guide conversation to include students’ views, judgements, and rationales, using text evidence and other substantive support.
  5. Ensure that all students are included in the conversation according to their preferences.
  6. Listen carefully to access levels of students’ understanding.
  7. Assist students’ learning throughout the conversation by questioning, restating, praising, encouraging, and so forth.
  8. Guide the students to prepare a product that indicates the goal of the instructional conversation was achieved.

Source: Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (1999).