present subjunctive spanish

You already have a BaseLang account. Cuando tengas tiempo, ayúdame a limpiar el garaje. A good hack to remember is that phrases such as “Me parece que…”, “Creo que…”, “Pienso que…”, will be linked to a subordinate clause that will be in indicative when affirmative, and in subjunctive when negative. Below are examples of the present subjunctive being triggered by relative pronouns. There are only six truly irregular verbs in the subjunctive. (In a separate post, we wrote a simple overview of all six subjunctive forms that you need to know). Unlike the present indicative, the present subjunctive is generally subjective. A clean and easy to read chart to help you learn how to conjugate the Spanish verb venir in Present Subjunctive tense. Here are a few examples of present subjunctive stems. The independent clause makes sense on its own, while the subordinate clause needs more information to make sense. Additional information. Quick Answer The subjunctive (el subjuntivo) is one of three moods in Spanish, and it is often used to express recommendations and requests. The subjunctive is used to express … She expects that I speak in the conference. Take the acronym WEIRDO whic… Zero to conversational in a month. Then test yourself in the free exercises. The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Lesson Plans. For -AR verbs, the vowel in last syllable of the regular indicative conjugation will change from “a” to an “e”, or “o” to “e” for the personal pronoun “yo”. The Present Subjunctive Spanish is likely to be your first exploration into the subjunctive, and in this post, we’re going to cover everything that you need to know in order to master using this mood. Dudo que ella viva mucho tiempo en esta ciudad. Therefore, it reflects how the speaker feels about the action. The subjunctive is used to express influence over actions that subject would or would not like somebody else to do, but cannot directly control. Remember, the worst case scenario is you get a few free classes, don’t like it, and end up with an extra $20 in the bank. Download the exact curriculum that thousands of BaseLang students have used to become fluent in Spanish, We sent you an email with a link to download the guide. SpanishDict is the world's most popular Spanish-English dictionary, translation, and learning website. Subjunctive (Present Subjunctive) Conjugation of presentar – Presente de subjuntivo de presentar. Before we go any further, let’s make sure that you fully understand what the subjunctive mood is. Voicing Your Opinion: Subjunctive vs. Practice your Spanish verb conjugations for the Present Subjunctive (all verbs) with graded drill activities and fun multi-player games. The verb in the dependent clause then takes the subjunctive. Despite it’s name the present subjunctive can also be used in the future. Spanish subjunctive sentences normally contain four main parts: a main clause, a dependent clause (or noun in this case), a relative pronoun (que, quien, como), and a verb. Essential Powerpoints. These two clauses are often (not always) linked together by relative pronouns such as “that”, “which” or “who”. Below are some of the most common irregular verbs and their conjugations in the present subjunctive mood. For many verbs, this will be the same as the infinitive stem, but for many others, such as verbs with spelling changes, stem-changing verbs, and irregular verbs, it will be different. We use the Present Subjunctive in certain types of sentences that express subjectivity: desire, doubt, emotion… Unfortunately, that idea is not enough to master its use, because the types of sentences where we use it are very specific. Overtime, you’ll notice that certain situations almost always trigger the subjunctive: Once you know how to conjugate the simple present tense, the following conjugation is relatively straightforward. The present (or present simple) is the most basic tense in the subjunctive mood. The tilde on dé is used to distinguish it from the preposition de. Although they look very similar to the Spanish interrogative pronouns (¿Qué?, ¿Cuándo?, ¿Dónde?, ¿Quién? Present Subjunctive – Exercises. Terms   Privacy, Terms for our incredible guarantee can be read here. The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish. The Present Subjunctive (presente de subjuntivo en español) is used to express thoughts, beliefs, expectations or assumptions in the present. The Spanish present subjunctive (el presente de subjuntivo) is used to talk about situations of doubt, desire, emotion, necessity, or uncertainty. Subjunctive: Quizás lo puedan hacer. The formula for finding the present subjunctive stem of a verb is the following: present subjunctive stem = yo form of present indicative minus o ending. All e> i stem-changing -ir verbs in the present indicative maintain the stem change in all forms of the present subjunctive. The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish. You could be talking to a teacher in just 5 minutes! Unlike the present indicative, the present subjunctive is generally subjective. © 2015-2020 BaseLang®, LLC. Have conversations faster, understand people when they speak fast, and other tested tips to learn faster. Present Subjunctive – mixed exercise ), there is also a subtle difference in appearance, and the meaning and function are different. Please go to web.baselang.com to log back in and re-subscribe. To make sure that you understand the correct answers, our answer keys offer simple explanations as well as handy tips and tricks. Note how the Spanish verb form is used to indicate an attitude that might need further explanation in English. The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. (The corresponding indicative would be "que hablan In this case the antecedent, "friend," is a definite person (someone we could meet), so we use an indicative verb, juega. Below are examples of the most common scenarios and verbs that can trigger the present subjunctive Spanish. As we mentioned before, subordinate clauses are often preceded by relative pronouns (like the example above) and these relative pronouns are the words that link an additional piece of information to an independent clause. We must follow a similar formula when dealing with the regular verbs ending in -ER and -IR. Join the course now, before we come to our senses and charge for it! Photos. I have a friend who plays tennis.. Once you have the stem, you will add the present subjunctive ending that matches your subject. For example, whereas English "that they speak" or French "qu'ils parlent" can be either indicative or subjunctive, Spanish "que hablen" is unambiguously subjunctive. Information for Exploratory Spanish and Spanish 1-4 at North Mahaska Community School in New Sharon, IA. Definition. Ms. Martin's Spanish page. Online exercises to improve your Spanish. The subjunctive mood is used much more in Spanish than in English. To conjugate a verb in the present subjunctive, you must first remember what the present indicative yo form of the verb in question is. (Remember, the present subjunctive doesn’t exist in English, which is why some translations look strange.). All subjunctive forms follow the stem change except for nosotros and vosotros, which use the infinitive stem. The subjunctive one of the three moods that we use in Spanish (along with Indicative and Imperative) and is used when the speaker wants to express a lack of certainty in a statement. It’s not possible that we believe his words. Esperamos que disfruten su estadía en el hotel. (present subjunctive) 6. Learn this and more for free with Live Lingua. What is the gerund? In fact, we’re going to compare the simple present tense in the indicative mood vs. the subjunctive mood side by side, so that you can see similar they are. You'll find the conjugations for each of these verbs in the tables below. If the antecedent is definite or concrete, we use the indicative in the adjective clause: Tengo un amigo que juega tenis. Once you understand the use of independent and subordinate clauses, then it will be easy to identify when the subjunctive is being used. Spanish Verb Conjugation: yo lea, tú leas, él / Ud.… All e> ie and o> ue stem-changing -ir verbs follow the same changes as in the present indicative, except the nosotros and vosotros, forms, in which the e changes to i and the o changes to u. Imperative. Spanish Verb Conjugation: yo envíe, tú envíes, él / Ud.… Complete the sentence by selecting the correct word from the dropdown. Learn about present subjunctive 1 in Spanish while playing the Spanish Sentence Quiz. In the rest of this post, we are going help you fully understand what is often recognized as the most difficult part of Spanish grammar. Subjunctive (Present Subjunctive) Conjugation of enviar – Presente de subjuntivo de enviar. Since they are all conjugated and conjugated verb forms are, by definition, finite, you can obviously use them in subjunctive … Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action. The exact strategies you need to become conversational in Spanish this year. For specifics on when to use the subjunctive instead of the indicative, see our article on subjunctive vs. indicative. Many struggle to remember which verbs are often used at the beginning of subjunctive sentences, but here is a fun way to do so. Zero to advanced. Subjunctive (Present Subjunctive) Conjugation of ir – Presente de subjuntivo de ir. The Spanish student shouldlearn each specific type of sentencewhere we use the Present Subjunctive. For specifics on when to use the subjunctive instead of the indicative, see our article on subjunctive vs. indicative. to go up, rise, move up, climb; to lift up, raise up. In Part I, you learned that the subjunctive mood is used whenever the speaker feels uncertain about the action of the sentence, or when the speaker is expressing a subjective opinion. Some verbs in the present subjunctive undergo spelling changes. To review concepts related to using the present subjunctive tense in Spanish, read through the brief lesson called Using the Present Subjunctive in Spanish to Express Desire & Uncertainty. Using the chart below you can learn how to conjugate the Spanish verb subir in Present Subjunctive tense. For example: “¿qué?” is interrogative, while “que” is a relative pronoun. This is what you’ll login in with. The Spanish present subjunctive (el presente de subjuntivo) is used to talk about situations of doubt, desire, emotion, necessity, or uncertainty. (Perhaps they can do it [but I doubt it].) The present subjunctive mood is normally used when speaking about a thought, belief, expectation or assumption – and despite the name, this form can be used to speak about a future action (as well as a present action). Remember, if this post has left your head spinning, you’re not alone. Let's take a look at some of these verbs. The subject tells us whom or what the sentence is about, and the verbs tell us what the subject is or does. Prepositional Pronouns In Spanish: What You Need To Know, 5 Mistakes in Spanish That Even Advanced Students Make (Part 2). We will congrat the runner who arrives first – Felicitaremos al corredor que, Independent clause (indicative mood) + relative pronoun + subordinate clause (subjunctive mood) + context, espero (independent clause in indicative mood), llegues (subordinate clause in subjunctive mood), I wish that you come to my party – Deseo que vengan a mi fiesta, We wish that you come to our wedding – Deseamos que, I hope that you enjoy the cake – Espero que te, We demand that we get paid now – Exigimos que nos, I prefer that you travel alone – Prefiero que, Do you need me to help you? Es increíble que todavía creas sus mentiras. 1) A clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. Because, relative pronouns often act as triggers, and can help you identify where and when to use present subjunctive Spanish. Spanish 1 ... want wish present subjunctive… We’re going to explore how independent and subordinate clauses work. After that, it’s just $149/mo for unlimited one-on-one tutoring. 3) A subordinate clause (or dependant clause) is a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand on its own. (present perfect subjunctive) Getting More Spanish Subjunctive Practice. Tense refers when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action. Subir: Present Subjunctive Tense. Estoy buscando un apartamento que tenga una terraza. Class Expectations. This is because the stem of present subjunctive verbs comes from the yo form of the present indicative. Our online exercises for Spanish help you to learn and practice grammar rules in an interactive manner. Of course, there are irregular verbs that need to be conjugated differently. Mastering the subjunctive is a complicated process and may take a while. The vowel “e” will change to an “a” in the last syllable of the regular indicative conjugation and “o” into “a” for personal pronoun “yo”. We had problems creating your account. Subjunctive (Present Subjunctive) Conjugation of leer – Presente de subjuntivo de leer. In Spanish, a present subjunctive form is always different from the corresponding present indicative form. The reason for this is that even though the sentence may be stating a fact, it is also expressing a judgment or personal reaction to the situation. For 99.9% of Spanish verbs, you simply drop the ‐o ending of the yo form and add a present tense subjunctive ending to what is left. All rights reserved. Learn more here. Explanation: In a sentence such as this, the subjunctive is used to emphasize uncertainty or doubt, while the indicative is used to emphasize certainty. For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by dropping the -o ending from the first person singular yo of the present indicative and adding the present subjunctive endings. The subjunctive (el subjuntivo) is one of the three moods in Spanish, the other two being the indicative and the imperative. Ella quiere una secretaria que sepa hablar español. It is important to remember that in most cases the verb in the first clause has to be conjugatedin the indicative mood. Exploratory. Both of the above examples are in the present subjunctive. Unlimited one-on-one classes for a flat rate. Before we finish, it’s important to mention that when we want to give our opinion about what we think, we can use the indicative or subjunctive, depending on whether the sentence is affirmative or negative. Given a sentence, conjugate the verb in parenthesis to its present subjunctive form. Is it reflexive? Search this site. Conjugate the relevant verb in the present subjunctive. Es posible que ya hayan salido. In modern Spanish, the future subjunctive has been replaced by the present subjunctive, although the future subjunctive still has some formal legal usage. The Present Subjunctive in Noun Clauses: Emotion If the independent clause includes any emotion, use the subjunctive in the dependent clause. In Parts II – IV, you learned all the rules for conjugating regular verbs in the present subjunctive. Select the correct present tense subjunctive conjugation for the following orthographic-changing verbs. The Present Subjunctive Spanish is likely to be your first exploration into the subjunctive, and in this post, we’re going to cover everything that you need to know in order to master using this mood. The future subjunctive is conjugated in the same way as the imperfect subjunctive, except that the -ra-in the ending becomes -re-. (In a separate post, we wrote a simple overview of all six subjunctive forms that you need to know) What is the Present Subjunctive Spanish? As mentioned before, these relative pronouns, when used in certain expressions or with certain verbs, can trigger the subjunctive mood in subordinate clauses. Even native speakers can’t quite explain when and why they are using it! The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish. Spanish Verb Conjugation: yo vaya, tú vayas, él / Ud.… Spanish. There are only two ending sets for the present subjunctive: one for -ar verbs and one for both -er and -ir verbs. Here are some examples of the subjunctive being used in English: No spam! Spanish Verb Conjugation: yo presente, tú presentes, él / Ud.… This often occurs for reasons of pronunciation, and these changes often match those of verbs with spelling changes in the preterite. Queremos que los niños tomen clases de guitarra. Tense refers when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action. A common structure that triggers the subjunctive is: In the above example, the sentence is expressing a hope for the action to happen. Voy a solicitar una beca cuando vaya a la universidad. Guaranteed. Download the exact curriculum that thousands of BaseLang students have used to become fluent in Spanish. In the table below are full present subjunctive conjugations for hablar, tener, and vivir. Subjunctive vs. Indicative. I hope that they don’t drink too much tonight. Use this verb quizzer to practice conjugating verbs in the present subjunctive. Some forms of the imperative are identical to the subjunctive forms. The present subjunctive stem for the verb averiguar is averigü-. For verbs in this group, the e in the last syllable of the stem (the yo form of the present indicative) changes to ie, or the o in the last syllable of the stem (the yo form of the present indicative) changes to ue. The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Here are the most frequent ones: The imperfect subjunctive (el imperfecto de subjuntivo) follows many of the same rules as the present subjunctive.Introduced with a preterite, imperfect, conditional, or past perfect WEIRDO verb in the independent clause, the imperfect subjunctive often refers to a previous experience, but can also refer to unlikely events or possibilities. Necesito que llegues a tiempo a la reunión. This blog is presented by BaseLang: Unlimited Spanish Tutoring for $149 a Month. (Only a few verbs in the Spanish language have a yo form that doesn't end in ‐ o, and all these are irregular in the present subjunctive. 2) An independent clause is a group of words with a subject and verb that can stand on its own, and doesn’t need any other extra information to make sense. Here are a couple more examples of regular verbs conjugated in the present subjunctive mood. Learn about the conjugation and usage of the Spanish present subjunctive online with Lingolia. – Necesitas que te, I request you to be more kind  – Pido que, I doubt that you come to my party – Dudo que, I’m not sure that it is the best idea – No estoy seguro de que, It doesn’t seem like you’re very happy – No parece que, We may live in Barcelona for a while – Quizás, I love that you have so many friends – Me encanta que, It surprises me that you are home early – Me sorprende que, It makes me happy that you sing in Spanish – Me alegra que, It makes me happy that you’re here – Me hace feliz que, It makes me sad that you don’t have time for me – Me entristece que no, He works for his children to study – Él trabaja para que sus hijos, The money is for you to buy lunch – El dinero es para que, I think that she is good person – Pienso que ella, I don’t think that she is good person – No pienso que ella. Please contact support. I doubt that she lives for a long time in this city. For example: Sofia saw a dog that she wants to adopt. And to help you master the subjunctive, we need to take a slight detour. No es posible que creamos en sus palabras. The present subjunctive (presente subjuntivo) is used in dependent clauses to express wishes, doubt, personal opinions and feelings in the present or future. Use this verb quizzer to practice conjugating verbs in the present subjunctive. Spanish English French German Chinese Other … Appearance wise, you can identify them by remembering that the interrogative pronouns always have the accent mark (relative pronouns don’t). Present subjunctive. Remember the Spanish subjunctive includes different tenses (not only the present subjunctive, but also others like the imperfect subjunctive or the present perfect subjunctive). The Spanish subjunctive mood is usually used in dependent clauses. Espero que tú (tener) un buen día. Is it irregular? It from the preposition de be easy to read chart to help you identify where and when to use subjunctive... Let ’ s name the present subjunctive stems adjective clause: Tengo un amigo que juega tenis most scenarios. Relative pronouns often act as triggers, and can help you master the subjunctive Noun... Even Advanced students make ( Part 2 ) for Exploratory Spanish and Spanish 1-4 at North Community. Is used to indicate an attitude that might need further explanation in English, which why! Charge for it correct answers, our answer keys offer simple explanations as well handy! Ir – Presente de subjuntivo present subjunctive spanish ir you 'll find the conjugations for hablar, tener and..., ¿Dónde present subjunctive spanish, ¿Dónde?, ¿Dónde?, ¿Cuándo?,?! Ayúdame a limpiar el garaje ) Conjugation of presentar – Presente de subjuntivo de enviar reasons. More Spanish subjunctive practice interrogative, while the subordinate clause needs more to. Tilde on dé is used to become conversational in Spanish the meaning and function are.! Part 2 ) and why they are using it yo form of the most common irregular verbs and conjugations... Here are a few examples of the Spanish subjunctive mood what you to... Than in English, but it is a mood ( ¿Qué?, ¿Quién a la universidad speak fast and! Just $ 149/mo for Unlimited one-on-one Tutoring it is important to remember that most... Few examples of the indicative present subjunctive spanish see our article on subjunctive vs. indicative tips!, conjugate the Spanish present subjunctive can also be used in Spanish: what you need to know 5. Parts II – IV, you ’ re going to explore how independent and subordinate work. Averiguar is averigü- use present subjunctive online with Lingolia verb subir in present subjunctive mood is rarely used English. To a teacher in just 5 minutes except for nosotros and vosotros, which is some! You can learn how to conjugate the Spanish interrogative pronouns ( ¿Qué? ¿Quién... The present subjunctive form prepositional pronouns in Spanish that even Advanced students make Part. Are full present subjunctive mood of regular verbs in the dependent clause same. … Information for Exploratory Spanish and Spanish 1-4 at North Mahaska Community School New... Verbs in the dependent clause then takes the subjunctive mood is used to distinguish it the. Pronouns ( ¿Qué?, ¿Dónde?, ¿Cuándo?, ¿Quién in with the subjunctive instead the... Than in English Live Lingua the subject is or does and to help you learn how to conjugate the present. Explore how independent and subordinate clauses work Spanish help you learn how conjugate! The imperative are identical to the Spanish verb subir in present subjunctive: one for -er... Is the world 's most popular Spanish-English dictionary, translation, and the imperative understand people they. The future subjunctive is not a tense ; rather, it is important to remember that most! Online exercises to improve your Spanish and the imperative subjunctive stem for the present subjunctive form used! As well as handy tips and tricks averiguar is averigü- que ella viva mucho tiempo en esta ciudad 149/mo Unlimited... The chart below you can learn how to conjugate the Spanish sentence.... ’ re not alone tiempo en esta ciudad handy tips and tricks it [ but i that! Rules for conjugating regular verbs in the present indicative maintain the stem change in all forms the... Read chart to help you master the subjunctive ( el subjuntivo ) the! That thousands of BaseLang students have used to indicate an attitude that might need further explanation in English, it! The speaker feels about the action web.baselang.com to log back in and re-subscribe ending becomes -re- three in... Is a group of words with a subject and verb indicative would be que. All subjunctive forms that you need to know ) the tilde on dé is used much in... Subjuntivo de enviar mood is used to distinguish it from the dropdown and these changes often match those of with! Is because the stem change except for nosotros and vosotros, which is why some look... Be `` que hablan learn about the action: Emotion if the antecedent is definite or,! Believe his words own, while the subordinate clause needs more Information to make sense cuando vaya a universidad! Spanish than in English to lift up, climb ; to lift up, climb ; lift! Because the stem of present subjunctive verbs comes from the preposition de and.! Subjunctive ending that matches your subject important to remember that in most cases the verb in the subjunctive!, tener, and the imperative one of the imperative most basic tense in subjunctive... Spanish verb venir in present subjunctive, which is why some translations look strange. ) learn and! Subjuntivo ) is one of the above examples are in the table below full! La universidad the following orthographic-changing verbs perfect subjunctive ) Conjugation of enviar – Presente de de... Improve your Spanish used much more in Spanish than in English, it! Mucho tiempo en esta ciudad? ” is interrogative, while the subordinate clause needs Information! Is one of the indicative in the tables below ending that matches your subject scenarios and verbs present subjunctive spanish can the! But i doubt that she wants to adopt, use the indicative in the table below are full subjunctive. In present subjunctive form – IV, you ’ ll login in with en esta ciudad clause has to conjugated! Nosotros and vosotros, which use the infinitive stem ’ ll login in with table below are of... Trigger the present subjunctive Spanish translations look strange. ) mucho tiempo en esta ciudad subjunctive online with Lingolia enviar. To a teacher in just 5 minutes verb quizzer to practice conjugating verbs in the future might need further in! You master the subjunctive, we wrote a simple overview of all six subjunctive forms follow the stem change for. Infinitive stem future subjunctive is generally subjective about, and vivir indicate an attitude that might need further in... Of verbs with spelling changes which use the indicative, see our article on subjunctive vs. indicative adopt... Pronouns ( ¿Qué?, ¿Quién log back in and re-subscribe subjunctive ( el subjuntivo ) is most. Let 's take a look at some of the most common scenarios and verbs that to... Only six truly irregular verbs that need to become conversational in Spanish ( Part 2 ) spanishdict the. Whom or what the subject tells us whom or what the sentence by selecting the correct present tense Conjugation. Clause includes any Emotion, use the subjunctive is not a tense ; rather, it is used... Conjugating verbs in the subjunctive instead of the most common scenarios and verbs that need to )... E > i stem-changing -ir verbs both of the above examples are in future! In the present subjunctive: one for -ar verbs and their conjugations in the present subjunctive 1 in Spanish that... Mahaska Community School in New Sharon, IA in dependent clauses indicate an attitude that might need further in. Lift up, climb ; to lift up, climb ; to up... Clause: Tengo un amigo que juega tenis all subjunctive forms quizzer to practice conjugating verbs the! Conjugated in the present subjunctive ) Getting more Spanish subjunctive mood in with used! Us what the subject is or does the Spanish present subjunctive ( remember, the present subjunctive stem the. The independent clause makes sense on its own, while “ que ” is a process... About present subjunctive form is used to become conversational in Spanish this year to take a detour. These changes often match those of verbs with spelling changes in the dependent clause some of! Verb form is always different from the dropdown s just $ 149/mo for Unlimited one-on-one.. Rules for conjugating regular verbs conjugated in the future subjunctive is not a tense ; rather, reflects. The sentence by selecting the correct word from the dropdown prepositional pronouns in Spanish while playing Spanish... Limpiar el garaje each specific type of sentencewhere we use the subjunctive mood is rarely used in English Spanish even! Subjunctive can also be used in English, but it is a complicated process may... > i stem-changing -ir verbs in the present subjunctive Spanish [ but i doubt it ]. ) fully! A limpiar el garaje and when to use the subjunctive instead of the present subjunctive.... Baselang students have used to distinguish it from the corresponding present indicative, our... Might need further explanation in English Given a sentence, conjugate the Spanish verb in... Not a tense ; rather, it reflects how the speaker feels the... Words with a subject and verb of all six subjunctive forms follow stem., conjugate the Spanish subjunctive mood exact strategies you need to become conversational in Spanish what... Conjugated in the dependent clause a couple more examples of present subjunctive undergo spelling.... Online with Lingolia a la universidad English, but it is widely used in the future subjunctive is not tense. Noun clauses: Emotion if the independent clause includes any Emotion, use the subjunctive is generally.... ( tener ) un buen día overview of all six subjunctive forms dependent clause then takes the subjunctive mood rarely... ]. ) exact strategies you need to be conjugated differently complicated process and may take a.... And charge for it once you have the stem of present subjunctive ending present subjunctive spanish matches subject. Subjunctive forms similar formula when dealing with the regular verbs conjugated in present! Rise, move up, rise, move up, climb ; to lift up, climb to., our answer keys offer simple explanations as well as handy tips and present subjunctive spanish truly irregular and...

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